Monthly Archives: September 2016

SCP to a vCenter Server Appliance (VCSA)

For some this may be a rare situation but from time to time I find that I’m needing to copy files to and from a vCenter Server Appliance (VCSA).  I had one of these situations recently on vCenter 6.  I needed to move some log files off a VCSA box.

I’ve found the easiest way to do this is via SCP -- Secure Copy, which uses the SSH protocol.  It’s a relatively simple process to enable the VCSA to accept SCP connections.  It’s a two step process which first requires enabling SSH on the VCSA and then switching the default Shell.

Step 1, involves enabling SSH  

I’ve written a previous post on how to enable SSH on a VCSA here.  Since that post VMware have re-released the VAMI on vCenter Server Appliance V6 U2.  So I thought I might show this new method to enable SSH.  Only if using VCSA 6 U2 or greater else use my previous post steps.

Connect to the VAMI URL of your vCenter on port 5480 using HTTPS.  In my case it was https://vc.ukoticland.local:5480/login.html

vami-000298

Login with your VCSA root account and password.  Then navigate to Access and click Edit on the far right.  Select Enable ssh login and to make life a little easier also Enable bash shell and click OK.  The timeout refers to how long the Bash shell will stay enabled.  The default is fine.

vami-000299

Step 2, changing the default shell

Even though we enabled the bash shell above the default shell is still the VMware appliance shell which prevents us from connecting to the VCSA via SCP.  So we need to SSH to the VCSA and change the default Shell from the Appliance Shell to Bash.

In my case I used Putty.  Logged in with my root account and type shell.

putty-000300

Now i can change the default shell for the root user to bash using the below command.

chsh -s /bin/bash root

putty-000301

We’re now ready to SCP to our VCSA with the ability to transfer files to and from the VCSA.  I use the simple Windows app, WinSCP.  I change the File Protocol to SCP.  I enter in my vCenter as my host and my root credentials.

winscp-000302

When you’re complete just reverse the changes you made.   In the SSH Putty session type the below to permanently switch the Bash shell back to the default Appliance Shell.  Then log back into the VAMI as above.  In Access deselect SSH and Bash.

chsh -s /bin/appliancesh root

References

Toggling the vCenter Server Appliance 6.x default shell (2100508)

PowerShell on Linux

The big news out of Microsoft last month making headlines is the open sourcing of PowerShell.  Along with this comes the ability to now run PowerShell not just in Windows but also Linux and Mac OS X.  For people close to the PowerShell community this wasn’t unexpected, but make no mistake this is huge news.

I’m really liking this new Microsoft.  They are really embracing this open source stuff.  On first thought it’s not obvious how Microsoft will make money with PowerShell going open source.  But Microsoft isn’t stupid, this is no doubt part of a larger master plan.  With PowerShell so tightly linked to their products they are opening the door to a whole new demographic of users.  I can see PowerShell going open source being a key to getting a new mix of Linux Developers working in Azure.  Something close to my heart is VMware have also announced plans to port over PowerCLI to work with PowerShell for Linux.  As a PowerCLI tragic myself I’ve seen first hand how frustrated Mac users have been that they can’t manage their VMware infrastructure using PowerShell / PowerCLI directly from a Mac.

Microsoft have made it clear this is very early stages of an Alpha release on GitHub.  They are looking for community help to further develop and refine using PowerShell on Linux.  There’s a large number of bug fixes, growing by the day, that they need to work through before we get anywhere close to a production release.

I decided to try it out myself and i’m impressed, the future looks awesome.  Apart from Windows currently the open source version is limited to Ubuntu 14.04 /16.04, CentOS 7, and Mac OS X 10.11.

I had an Ubuntu 14.04 Linux VM that I used testing.  The first thing is to download the appropriate package over at GitHub. https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell

Once downloaded and depending on what OS you’re running you may need to install a few additional libraries first.  In my case it was libnuwind8 and libicu52 using apt-get. After which i was able to install the PowerShell Debian package. 

[email protected]:~/Downloads$ sudo apt-get install libunwind8 libicu52
[email protected]:~/Downloads$ sudo dpkg -i powershell_6.0.0-alpha.9-1ubuntu1.14.04.1_amd64.deb

Believe it or not that’s all that is required.  Whatever your Shell of choice is just type ‘powershell

[email protected]:~/Downloads$ powershell
PowerShell 
Copyright (C) 2016 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

PS /home/mukotic/Downloads> 

So what can we do.  Well, it’s still early days.  The first thing i did was just check the version.  I can see we’re running the .Net Core release of PowerShell which comes with Nano Server.

PS /home/mukotic/Downloads> $psversiontable 

Name Value 
---- ----- 
PSVersion 6.0.0-alpha 
PSEdition Core 
PSCompatibleVersions {1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0...} 
BuildVersion 3.0.0.0 
GitCommitId v6.0.0-alpha.9 
CLRVersion 
WSManStackVersion 3.0 
PSRemotingProtocolVersion 2.3 
SerializationVersion 1.1.0.1

Looking at what’s available to us it’s still limited to a handful of modules.

PS /home/mukotic/Downloads> Get-Module -ListAvailable 


 Directory: /opt/microsoft/powershell/6.0.0-alpha.9/Modules


ModuleType Version Name ExportedCommands 
---------- ------- ---- ---------------- 
Manifest 1.0.1.0 Microsoft.PowerShell.Archive {Compress-Archive, Expand-Archive} 
Manifest 3.0.0.0 Microsoft.PowerShell.Host {Start-Transcript, Stop-Transcript} 
Manifest 3.1.0.0 Microsoft.PowerShell.Management {Add-Content, Clear-Content, Clear-ItemProperty, Join-Path...} 
Manifest 3.0.0.0 Microsoft.PowerShell.Security {Get-Credential, Get-ExecutionPolicy, Set-ExecutionPolicy, ConvertFrom-SecureString...
Manifest 3.1.0.0 Microsoft.PowerShell.Utility {Format-List, Format-Custom, Format-Table, Format-Wide...} 
Binary 1.0.0.1 PackageManagement {Find-Package, Get-Package, Get-PackageProvider, Get-PackageSource...} 
Script 3.3.9 Pester {Describe, Context, It, Should...} 
Script 1.0.0.1 PowerShellGet {Install-Module, Find-Module, Save-Module, Update-Module...} 
Script 0.0 PSDesiredStateConfiguration {StrongConnect, IsHiddenResource, Write-MetaConfigFile, Get-InnerMostErrorRecord...} 
Script 1.2 PSReadLine {Get-PSReadlineKeyHandler, Set-PSReadlineKeyHandler, Remove-PSReadlineKeyHandler, G...

So those traditional Windows cmdlets will now work against the local Linux box.  Things like Get-Process will return the local running Linux processes.

PS /home/mukotic/Downloads> Get-Process


Handles NPM(K) PM(K) WS(K) CPU(s) Id SI ProcessName 
------- ------ ----- ----- ------ -- -- ----------- 
 0 0 0 0 0.400 1331 549 accounts-daemon 
 0 0 0 0 0.350 1111 111 acpid 
 0 0 0 0 0.000 2248 205 at-spi-bus-laun 
 0 0 0 0 0.040 2264 205 at-spi2-registr 
 0 0 0 0 0.000 147 0 ata_sff

Another thing that’s also worth checking out is Visual Studio Code.  This is another great open source project Microsoft has going.  If you’ve used PowerShell ISE in Windows, think of a stream lined version of that, just more powerful leveraging extensions.  Head over to https://code.visualstudio.com/docs/setup/linux and download the package.

Installation was also super simple.

PS /home/mukotic/Downloads> sudo dpkg -i code_1.4.0-1470329130_amd64.deb.deb

Then run by typing ‘code’

PS /home/mukotic/Downloads> code

Ubuntu 14.04 - VMware Workstation-000296

I recommend getting the PowerShell extension right off the bat.  Click the Extensions icon on the left, search for PowerShell, and click Install

Ubuntu 14.04 - VMware Workstation-000297

Now we have all the wonders of Intellisense that we are use to in the Windows PowerShell ISE.  I really see Visual Studio Code becoming a future replacement for the Windows PowerShell ISE, which while still in development, has been quite stagnated in recent years.

So there you have it.  Jeffrey Snover, a Technical Fellow, in the Microsoft Enterprise Cloud Group has a great post and video discussing PowerShell going open source that should be checked out.

https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/powershell-is-open-sourced-and-is-available-on-linux/

The next thing I’m hanging out for is PowerCLI on Linux.  A demo is shown in a video in the above link running inside a Docker container.  Expect to soon see a VMware Fling release for us to try out.