Tag Archives: Shell

SCP to a vCenter Server Appliance (VCSA)

For some this may be a rare situation but from time to time I find that I’m needing to copy files to and from a vCenter Server Appliance (VCSA).  I had one of these situations recently on vCenter 6.  I needed to move some log files off a VCSA box.

I’ve found the easiest way to do this is via SCP -- Secure Copy, which uses the SSH protocol.  It’s a relatively simple process to enable the VCSA to accept SCP connections.  It’s a two step process which first requires enabling SSH on the VCSA and then switching the default Shell.

Step 1, involves enabling SSH  

I’ve written a previous post on how to enable SSH on a VCSA here.  Since that post VMware have re-released the VAMI on vCenter Server Appliance V6 U2.  So I thought I might show this new method to enable SSH.  Only if using VCSA 6 U2 or greater else use my previous post steps.

Connect to the VAMI URL of your vCenter on port 5480 using HTTPS.  In my case it was https://vc.ukoticland.local:5480/login.html

vami-000298

Login with your VCSA root account and password.  Then navigate to Access and click Edit on the far right.  Select Enable ssh login and to make life a little easier also Enable bash shell and click OK.  The timeout refers to how long the Bash shell will stay enabled.  The default is fine.

vami-000299

Step 2, changing the default shell

Even though we enabled the bash shell above the default shell is still the VMware appliance shell which prevents us from connecting to the VCSA via SCP.  So we need to SSH to the VCSA and change the default Shell from the Appliance Shell to Bash.

In my case I used Putty.  Logged in with my root account and type shell.

putty-000300

Now i can change the default shell for the root user to bash using the below command.

chsh -s /bin/bash root

putty-000301

We’re now ready to SCP to our VCSA with the ability to transfer files to and from the VCSA.  I use the simple Windows app, WinSCP.  I change the File Protocol to SCP.  I enter in my vCenter as my host and my root credentials.

winscp-000302

When you’re complete just reverse the changes you made.   In the SSH Putty session type the below to permanently switch the Bash shell back to the default Appliance Shell.  Then log back into the VAMI as above.  In Access deselect SSH and Bash.

chsh -s /bin/appliancesh root

References

Toggling the vCenter Server Appliance 6.x default shell (2100508)

Modifying Services via PowerCLI

If your vSphere environment is anything like the ones I manage over time you can be left with various ESXi hosts with Services left Running when they should be Stopped. It’s so common to turn on SSH or the ESXi Shell to troubleshoot an issue and then forget to Stop the service when you’re done.

If you’re managing 10s, if not, 100s of ESXi hosts you don’t want to be clicking on each host and checking the Security Profile setting.

This can be checked really easily and modified via PowerCLI. Below I slowly build a basic script that will check and modify a service of all hosts connected to a vCenter.

Open PowerCLI and make a connection to vCenter.

Connect-VIServer myvcenter.domain.local

Once connected we can run the following cmdlet to list all hosts in vCenter.

Get-VMHost

Next we can narrow it down by selecting an individual host then displaying all Services on that host to help identify the Service we want to modify.

Get-VMHost –Name esxi01.domain.local | Get-VMHostService

powercli_service01

This will display all services on the host, their policy state, and whether they are running.

Now we can take it one step further and enumerate all hosts looking for a specific service using its service name from the Key column above. In this case I want to list the settings for the ESXi Shell, which is defined by the Key value “TSM”

Get-VMHost | Get-VMHostService | Where {$_.Key –eq “TSM”}

powercli_service02

Next I want to now change the policy from On to Off for all hosts which we would do as follows.

Get-VMHost | Get-VMHostService | Where {$_.Key –eq “TSM-SSH”} | Set-VMHostService –Policy “On”

Finally, I want to also change the ESXi Shell on all hosts from Running to Stopped.

Get-VMHost | Get-VMHostService | Where {$_.Key –eq “TSM-SSH”} | Stop-VMHostService

powercli_service03

This will display a prompt asking you to acknowledge the operation on each or all hosts.

The scripts above are very crude but get the job done very quickly. They can obviously be narrowed down and enumerated much better. For example Get-Cluster can be used in front of Get-VMHost to target a specific cluster. Also the host’s name can be enumerated to better see which hosts you’re modifying on an individual basis. Call that your study lesson 😉